2. Vaishali District

 

 

BACKGROUND

 

B

ihar is a land of paradoxes with immense tolerance for incompatibles. It remains poised in the midst of inconsistencies. Its resilience permits drift to extend indefinitely. Bihar is thus at a critical historical juncture. It today’s is like the proverbial coin standing on the edge, whose two sides represent diametrically opposite possibilities.

Contrary to popular belief, Bihar has been known for good administration. In fact the state has always been proud of its administrative talents. The Mauryas, the Lichchavis and Shershah Suri are widely acclaimed for their good administrations. Many features of their administration are retained even today despite changes in legal, social and political situations.

Almost judged on any parameter of economic or social backwardness Bihar is placed at the bottom of the ladder. It is economically the poorest, social the most backward, and what is worse, one whose polity and society are most divided. But even at the risk of sounding simplistic, it seems safe to say that Bihar’s problems are essentially economic in nature. Structure and economical forces have played a crucial role in the above, the most glaring example is the lack of implementation of land reforms and reforms and also the pattern and level of investment during the initial years of planning have played an important role in the slow rate growth of the economy.

 

 

VaishaliIntroduction

Historical Importance

The district of Vaishali came in to existence on 12/10/1972. Earlier it was the part of old Muzzafarpur district. Vaishali has a past that pre-dates recorded history. It is held that the town derives its name from King Vishal, whose heroic deeds are narrated in the Hindu epic Ramayana. However, history records that around the time Pataliputra was the centre of political activity in the Gangetic plains, Vaishali came into existence as centre of the Ganga, it was the seat of the Republic of Vajji. Vaishali is credited with being the World's First Republic to have a duly elected assembly of representatives and efficient administration. The Lord Buddha visited Vaishali more than once during his lifetime and announced his approaching Mahaparinirvana to the great followers he had here. Five years after the Enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, Lord Buddha came to Vaishali, the capital of one the first republican states in the Ganga, Vaishali is bound by the hills of Nepal on the north and the river Gandak on the west. Hundred years after he attained Mahaparinirvana, it was the venue of the second Buddhist Council. According to one belief, the Jain Tirthankar, Lord Mahavir was born at Vaishali. The Chinese travelers Fa-Hien and Hieun Tsang also visited this place in early 5th and 7th centuries respectively and wrote about Vaishali.

The Lichchavi nobility came to receive the Enlightened One with a cavalcade of elephants and chariots bedecked with gold. As the Lord set foot on the soil of Vaishali, lightning and thunder followed by a heavy downpour purged the plague-infected city. The Buddha preached the Ratna Sutra to those assembled, and eighty-four thousand people embraced the new faith. It was also at Vaishali that Amrapali, the famous courtesan, earned the respect of the Sangha and a place in history, with her generous donations. The neighbouring village of Amvara is said to be the site of Amrapali's mango grove. Once when the Lord was visiting Vaishali, Amrapali invited him to her house and the Lord graciously accepted the offer. An overjoyed Amrapali, returning on her chariot, raised a cloud of dust. The Lichchavi princes going to meet the Buddha got enveloped in the dust and learnt of the Buddha's forthcoming visit to her house. The Lichchavi princes wanted to exchange Amrapali's honour for one hundred thousand gold coins. Amrapali steadfastly refused their offer and after the Buddha's visit to her house she was purged of all impurities. She gifted her mango grove to the Sangha. Amrapali joined the order after realising the transitory nature of all things, including beauty.

A kilometre away is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank. The sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali. Next to it stands the Japanese temple and the Vshwa Shanti Stupa (World Peace Pagoda) built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaishali have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. Near the coronation tank is Stupa 1 or the Relic Stupa. Here the Lichchavis reverentially encased on of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. In the north is the Site Museum. It has an excellent collection dating from 3rd century BC to 6th century AD. The terracotta monkey heads in different styles are interesting. The Site Museum is open daily from 9 am to 5 pm. It is closed on Fridays. Entry is free. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Lichchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Ananda, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, attained Nirvana in the midst of the Ganga outside Vaishali.

Geographical Location

            The District is located at 25° to 30° North latitude and 84° to 85° east longitude. The District is surrounded by river Ganga in south, Gandak in west. District Muzaffarpur is in north & Samastipur in East. The District is in semi tropical Gangetic plane. The state capital Patna is linked with famous Mahatma Gandhi Setu. The District is spread over 2036 sq km area.

Govt's Administrative Set-up

There are three sub divisions and 16 Blocks in the District. The District has 1638 revenue villages and 291 Gram panchayats. Traditionally the District was divided into 11 C.D. Blocks but five more Blocks were created during last decade. A few of the newly created Blocks are still in the formation process. The newly elected Panchayati Raj is enthusiastic to play important role in the District.

 

Developmental Projects in the Vaishali

               

                In the context of the development scenario of the Vaishalidistrict it is pertinent to mention here that a number of scheme aiming to reduce people's backwardness and poverty under centrally sponsored / assisted and other state schemes are going on. The brief description is given below for ready reference :-

A         Centrally Sponsored Scheme :-

                        The government of India is committed to bring rapid and sustainable development of the rural areas. So for the speedy Socio-Economic progress under the rural development various schemes are launched. The schemes are as follows :-

(i)         SWARN JAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA(SGSY) :-

                        This scheme was launched on 1st. April, 1999. It has replaced IRDP and its allied schemes Viz. TRYSEM, DWCRA, MWS, TOOLKITS etc. It aims to remove poverty by generating income through Bank Loan and govt. subsidy. It generates employment for individuals and for groups (SHGS). It is implemented by DRDA / Bank.

(ii)        SGRY :-

                        This scheme was launched 2nd Oct, 1993 and the restructured on 1st. April, 1999. It is wage earning and employment programme for the people below poverty line (BPL). It is for the poor needing wage and employment during slack seasons.

                        It is restructured Jawahar Gram Rozgar Yojana launched on 1st. April, 1999. It aims to improve the life of rural population. It is an employment scheme for the unemployed poor people in the rural areas especially for the weaker sections of the society.

 

(iii)       Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)  :-

                        It is rural housing programme for the meeting the housing needs of the poor people in the rural areas. It was launched in May, 1985 as a sub-scheme of NREP & RLEGP. It aims to help people below poverty line (BPL), rural house hold's belonging to SCs/STs, free bounded labours, widows of defence personnel killed in action, ex-serviceman and physically handicapped etc. Rs. 20000.00 for house building.

(iv)       National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)  :-

                        The scheme aim to provide monetary help to poorest persons of the age of 65 or more than distribute Rs. 100.00 per months is given to each person.

(v)        National Family Benefit Scheme  (NFBS)   :-

                        The scheme provides economic lump sum help to person below poverty line or the death of the bread earning member of the family. In amount of Rs. 10000.00 is given to the bereaved family. The age of the dead person should be more than 18 years but less than 65 years at the time of death.

(vi)       Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)   :-

                        The scheme was launched on 25th. December, 2000 with the objective of providing all weather good road connectivity to all unconnected village population more than 500. Roads are sanctioned as pucca metal road.

            Apart from these schemes PMGY , Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, MSTP, PMRY, SJGSY etc. are also being implemented successfully.

 

VAISHALI – AT A GLANCE

 

 

AREA ( Sq. Kms)                                                                  :-             2036

 

POPULATION                                              TOTAL           :-         2718421

(CENSUS 2001)                                           MALES          :-         1415603

FEMALES      :-         1302818

 

RURAL POPULATION                                TOTAL           :-         2531766

MALES          :-         1316796

FEMALES      :-         1214490

 

URBAN POPULATION                               TOTAL           :-         186655

MALES          :-         98807

FEMALES      :-         87848

 

POPULATION OF SCHEDULED CASTES                       :-         562123

 

POPULATION OF SCHEDULED TRIBES                        :-         3068

 

DENSITY OF POPULATION                                              :-         1335

 

SEX RATIO                                                                           :-         920

 

COMPARATIVE POPULATION DATA( 2001 Census)

Basic Data

India

Bihar

Vaishali

Population

1027015247

82878796

2718421

Density

324

880

1335

Socio- Economic

Sex- Ratio

933

921

920

Literacy %           Total

65.38

47.53

50.49

Male

75.85

60.32

63.23

Female

54.16

33.57

36.58

 

 

LITERACY RATE                                         TOTAL           :-         50.49%

MALES          :-         63.23%

FEMALES      :-         36.58%

 

 

 

 

VILLAGES                                                     TOTAL           :-                1569

INHABITED  :-                1414

UNINHABITED:-               155

 

PANCHAYATS                                                                     :-         291

 

SUB-DIVISION                                                                     :-         03

 

BLOCKS                                                                                :-         16

 

REVENUE CIRCLES                                                           :-         15

 

HALKAS                                                                                :-         114

 

POLICE STATIONS                                                              :-           22

 

POLICE OUTPOSTS                                                            :-           06

 

TOWNS                                                                                  :-           03

NAGAR PARISHAD(HAJIPUR)                                         :-           01

NAGAR PANCHAYAT( LALGANJ, MAHNAR).              :-           02

 

M.P CONSTITUENCY                                                         :-         1 ( 1 Part)

 

M.L.A. CONSTITUENCY                                                    :-         8 (Part)

 

EDUCATION

 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS                                                          :-         954

 

MIDDLE SCHOOLS                                                            :-`        389

 

D.P.E.P SCHOOLS                                                               :-         246

 

CHARWAHA VIDYALAYA                                                :-         06

 

JAWAHAR NAVODAY VIDYALAYA                               :-         01

 

CHILD LABOUR SCHOOLS                                              :-         210

 

SARVA SIKSHA ABHIYAN VIDYALAYA                        :-         105

 

HIGH SCHOOLS                                                                  :-         81

 

NO. OF TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOLS                         :-         700

 

NO. OF TEACHERS IN PRIMARY /

MIIDDLE SCHOOLS.                                                          :-         1806/1760

 

 

TEACHERS' TRAINING COLLEGE                                   :-         02

 

 

HEALTH

 

DISTRICT HOSPITAL                                                          :-         01

 

REFERRAL HOSPITAL                                                       :-         02

 

PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE                                            :-         11

 

ADDITIONAL PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE                  :-         33

 

HEALTH SUB CENTRE                                                      :-         339

 

GRAMIN AUSADHALAY                                                   :-         09

 

BLOOD BANK                                                                     :-         01

 

AIDS CONTROL SOCIETY                                                 :-         01

 

TRAINED NURSES                                                              :-         401

 

TRAINED DOCTORS                                                           :-         120

 

 

RAILWAYS

 

LENGTH OF RAIL ROUTE                                                 :-         71 KM.

 

 

 

 

POST OFFICE

 

NO OF POST OFFICE                                                          :-         236

 

NO OF TELEGRAPH OFFICE                                            :-         19

 

DRINKING WATER

 

NO.OF HAND TUBEWELLS IN RURAL AREAS            :-         20526

 

URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

PER DAY WATER SUPPLY CAPACITY-   HAJIPUR     :-         10.35 (M.L.D)

LALGANJ     :-         0.90 (M.L.D)

MAHNAR      :-         0.80 (M. L.D)

 

No. OF HAND TUBEWELLS IN URBAN AREAS HAJIPUR     :-         294

LALGANJ     :-            79

MAHNAR      :-         119

 

 

 

ENERGY & ELECTRICITY

 

i)         LENGTH OF DISTRIBUTION OF NET WORK

(a) 33 KVA LINE                                          :-         75 KM.

(b) 11 KVA LINE                                          :-         1050 KM.

 

 

ii)        TOWNS ELECTRIFIED

PERCENTAGE OF TOWN                                      :-         75 %

ELECTRIFICATION

 

iii)                                      VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED              :-         536

PERCENTAGE OF VILLAGE                                 :-         20%

ELECTRIFICATION

 

NO OF ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS

a)         Lift Irrigation                                                 :-         75 Nos.

b)         Agriculture services                                      :-         708 Nos.

c)         Domestic connection                                   :-         37374 Nos.

d)         Small Industrial connections                        :-         134 Nos.

(Low tension ind. service connections)

 

 

 

LAND USE :-

 

 

AREA UNDER CULTIVATION                                          :-         152348.14 ha

 

FOREST                                                                                 :-         Nil

 

BARREN/UNCULTIVABLE LAND                                   :-         1977 ha

 

CULTIVABLE WASTE                                                        :-         39304.0 ha

 

PERMANENT GRAZING                                                    :-         898.32  acres.

 

AREA NOT AVAILABLE FOR CULTIVATION                :-         59960.28 acres.

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE :-

 

MAIN CROPS                                                                 :-   Paddy, Maize, Wheat, Vegetables, tobacco & oil crops.

CROPPING INTENSITY                                                :-   222 %

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION                               :-    272.46 Thousand MT

 

YEILD RATES ( Kg/Hectare):-

PADDY                                                                      :-         2248

WHEAT                                                                      :-         2124

MAIZE                                                                       :-         3008 Rabi

2255 Kharif

GRAM                                                                        :-         850

LENTIL                                                                      :-         400

PEA                                                                            :-         1040

ARHAR                                                                      :-         1100

MUSTERED                                                              :-         850

LINSEED                                                                   :-                   430

 

 

 

 

 

 

FERTILISER CONSUMPTION:- ( Unit MT)

Chemical fertilizer.                                       5628 Tons.

Kharif                                     Rabi

Nitrogen                                   6303                                      5645

Phosphorus                                  95                                       1841

Potash                                            3                                          143

 

CONSUMPTION OF SEEDS, PESTICIDES AND INSECTISIDES  (In Quintal):-

 

PADDY                                  :-                     355

MAIZE                                   :-                     722

WHEAT                                  :-                     7250

GRAM                                    :-                     02

PEA                                        :-                     65

ARHAR                                  :-                     02

MUSTERED                          :-                     53

 

PESTICIDES & INSECTISIDES                  :-                      5.4

AGRICULTURAL GROWTH                     :-                     2%

 

AGRICULTURAL LABOUR                       :-                     1.96 Lakhs Persons.

 

CROP ROTATION

 

(I)        PADDY-                     WHEAT

(II)       PADDY                      WHEAT- MAIZE

(III)     PADDY-                     MAIZE

(IV)     PADDY-                     WHEAT- MUNG

(V)      TOBACCO-               MAIZE

(VI)     PADDY-                     POTATO - ONION

(VII)    PADDY-                     GRAM/MASUR/TISI

 

 

 

 

 

DETAIL OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES IN THE DISTRICT

 

COMMAND AREA OF KHARIF

 

a)                   PADDY                                                        :-         62260 Hect.

MAIZE                                                                      :-         32316 Hect.

b)                   PULSES                                                        :-                    Hect.

c)                   OIL SEEDS                                                   :-         3971  Hect.

TOTAL                                                                       :-                   Hect.

COMMAND AREA OF RABI                                  :-         50493 Hect.

AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL                           :-         1121 mm.

 

 

 

IRRIGATION SOURCES, POTENTIAL & ACHIEVEMENT (IN HECT)

 

SL.

SOURCE OF

IRRIGATION

IRRIGATION POTENTIAL

LAST YEAR ACHIEVEMENT

LATEST

ACHIEVEMENT

1

CANNALS & DAMS

6526

638

1558

2

MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT

2088

61.43

47.3

3

LIFT IRRIGATION

360

--

6.40

4

AHAR, TANK, POND, WELL

--

160

230

 

 

 

 

SIZE OF HOLDINGS

No.                  Area in Hect.

(a)       Less than 1 Hect.                                                       :- 439643                   84401

(b)       Between 1 and 2 hect.                                               :- 24214                     32252

(c)       Above 2 hect.                                                             :- 11263                     36532

 

 

 

 

 

ANIMAL HUSBANDARY

 

No of Vet nary Hospital                                                       :-                     22

No of Vet nary Sub Center                                                   :-                     44

(a)       Plough Animals                                                         :-                     127542

(b)       Diary Animal                                                             :-                     158631

(i)        Cattle                                                                          :-                     67216

(ii)       Buffalos                                                                     :-                     91415

(c)       Sheep

Goats      & Others                                                                :-                     171200

(d)       Poultry                                                                       :-                     63284

 

 

 

 

NUMBER OF BANK BRANCHES

 

1.                  STATE BANK OF INDIA                                         :-         10

2.                  UCO BANK                                                               :-         02

3.                  PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK                                  :-         01

4.                  BANK OF BARODA                                                :-         02

5.                  BANK OF INDIA                                                      :-         04

6.                  ALLAHABAD BANK                                               :-         04

7.                  CANARA BANK                                                       :-         06

8.                  UNION BANK OF INDIA                                        :-         01

9.                  LAND DEVELOPMENT BANK                             :-         04

10.             D.C.C.B                                                                     :-         06

11.             CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA                                   :-         21

12.             VAISHALI REGIONAL RURAL BANK                 :-         54

 

LEAD DISTRICT BANK                                          CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF WORKERS

 

(a)               Cultivators                                                                 :-         313576

(b)              Agriculture laborers                                                  :-         242159

(c)              Household & Cottage industries                             :-         175221

(d)              Others                                                                         :-         90279