2. Vaishali District
ihar is a land of paradoxes with immense tolerance for incompatibles. It remains poised in the midst of inconsistencies. Its resilience permits drift to extend indefinitely. Bihar is thus at a critical historical juncture. It today’s is like the proverbial coin standing on the edge, whose two sides represent diametrically opposite possibilities.
Contrary to popular belief, Bihar has been known for good administration. In fact the state has always been proud of its administrative talents. The Mauryas, the Lichchavis and Shershah Suri are widely acclaimed for their good administrations. Many features of their administration are retained even today despite changes in legal, social and political situations.
Almost judged on any parameter of economic or social backwardness Bihar is placed at the bottom of the ladder. It is economically the poorest, social the most backward, and what is worse, one whose polity and society are most divided. But even at the risk of sounding simplistic, it seems safe to say that Bihar’s problems are essentially economic in nature. Structure and economical forces have played a crucial role in the above, the most glaring example is the lack of implementation of land reforms and reforms and also the pattern and level of investment during the initial years of planning have played an important role in the slow rate growth of the economy.
Vaishali – Introduction
The district of Vaishali came in to existence on 12/10/1972. Earlier it was the part of old Muzzafarpur district. Vaishali has a past that pre-dates recorded history. It is held that the town derives its name from King Vishal, whose heroic deeds are narrated in the Hindu epic Ramayana. However, history records that around the time Pataliputra was the centre of political activity in the Gangetic plains, Vaishali came into existence as centre of the Ganga, it was the seat of the Republic of Vajji. Vaishali is credited with being the World's First Republic to have a duly elected assembly of representatives and efficient administration. The Lord Buddha visited Vaishali more than once during his lifetime and announced his approaching Mahaparinirvana to the great followers he had here. Five years after the Enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, Lord Buddha came to Vaishali, the capital of one the first republican states in the Ganga, Vaishali is bound by the hills of Nepal on the north and the river Gandak on the west. Hundred years after he attained Mahaparinirvana, it was the venue of the second Buddhist Council. According to one belief, the Jain Tirthankar, Lord Mahavir was born at Vaishali. The Chinese travelers Fa-Hien and Hieun Tsang also visited this place in early 5th and 7th centuries respectively and wrote about Vaishali.
The Lichchavi nobility came to receive the Enlightened One with a cavalcade of elephants and chariots bedecked with gold. As the Lord set foot on the soil of Vaishali, lightning and thunder followed by a heavy downpour purged the plague-infected city. The Buddha preached the Ratna Sutra to those assembled, and eighty-four thousand people embraced the new faith. It was also at Vaishali that Amrapali, the famous courtesan, earned the respect of the Sangha and a place in history, with her generous donations. The neighbouring village of Amvara is said to be the site of Amrapali's mango grove. Once when the Lord was visiting Vaishali, Amrapali invited him to her house and the Lord graciously accepted the offer. An overjoyed Amrapali, returning on her chariot, raised a cloud of dust. The Lichchavi princes going to meet the Buddha got enveloped in the dust and learnt of the Buddha's forthcoming visit to her house. The Lichchavi princes wanted to exchange Amrapali's honour for one hundred thousand gold coins. Amrapali steadfastly refused their offer and after the Buddha's visit to her house she was purged of all impurities. She gifted her mango grove to the Sangha. Amrapali joined the order after realising the transitory nature of all things, including beauty.
A kilometre away is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank. The sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali. Next to it stands the Japanese temple and the Vshwa Shanti Stupa (World Peace Pagoda) built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaishali have been enshrined in the foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. Near the coronation tank is Stupa 1 or the Relic Stupa. Here the Lichchavis reverentially encased on of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. In the north is the Site Museum. It has an excellent collection dating from 3rd century BC to 6th century AD. The terracotta monkey heads in different styles are interesting. The Site Museum is open daily from 9 am to 5 pm. It is closed on Fridays. Entry is free. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Lichchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Ananda, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, attained Nirvana in the midst of the Ganga outside Vaishali.
The District is located at 25° to 30° North latitude and 84° to 85° east longitude. The District is surrounded by river Ganga in south, Gandak in west. District Muzaffarpur is in north & Samastipur in East. The District is in semi tropical Gangetic plane. The state capital Patna is linked with famous Mahatma Gandhi Setu. The District is spread over 2036 sq km area.
Govt's Administrative Set-up
There are three sub divisions and 16 Blocks in the District. The District has 1638 revenue villages and 291 Gram panchayats. Traditionally the District was divided into 11 C.D. Blocks but five more Blocks were created during last decade. A few of the newly created Blocks are still in the formation process. The newly elected Panchayati Raj is enthusiastic to play important role in the District.
Developmental Projects in the Vaishali
In the context of the development scenario of the Vaishalidistrict it is pertinent to mention here that a number of scheme aiming to reduce people's backwardness and poverty under centrally sponsored / assisted and other state schemes are going on. The brief description is given below for ready reference :-
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme :-
The government of India is committed to bring rapid and sustainable development of the rural areas. So for the speedy Socio-Economic progress under the rural development various schemes are launched. The schemes are as follows :-
(i) SWARN JAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA(SGSY) :-
This scheme was launched on 1st. April, 1999. It has replaced IRDP and its allied schemes Viz. TRYSEM, DWCRA, MWS, TOOLKITS etc. It aims to remove poverty by generating income through Bank Loan and govt. subsidy. It generates employment for individuals and for groups (SHGS). It is implemented by DRDA / Bank.
(ii) SGRY :-
This scheme was launched 2nd Oct, 1993 and the restructured on 1st. April, 1999. It is wage earning and employment programme for the people below poverty line (BPL). It is for the poor needing wage and employment during slack seasons.
It is restructured Jawahar Gram Rozgar Yojana launched on 1st. April, 1999. It aims to improve the life of rural population. It is an employment scheme for the unemployed poor people in the rural areas especially for the weaker sections of the society.
(iii) Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) :-
It is rural housing programme for the meeting the housing needs of the poor people in the rural areas. It was launched in May, 1985 as a sub-scheme of NREP & RLEGP. It aims to help people below poverty line (BPL), rural house hold's belonging to SCs/STs, free bounded labours, widows of defence personnel killed in action, ex-serviceman and physically handicapped etc. Rs. 20000.00 for house building.
(iv) National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) :-
The scheme aim to provide monetary help to poorest persons of the age of 65 or more than distribute Rs. 100.00 per months is given to each person.
(v) National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) :-
The scheme provides economic lump sum help to person below poverty line or the death of the bread earning member of the family. In amount of Rs. 10000.00 is given to the bereaved family. The age of the dead person should be more than 18 years but less than 65 years at the time of death.
(vi) Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) :-
The scheme was launched on 25th. December, 2000 with the objective of providing all weather good road connectivity to all unconnected village population more than 500. Roads are sanctioned as pucca metal road.
Apart from these schemes PMGY , Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, MSTP, PMRY, SJGSY etc. are also being implemented successfully.
VAISHALI – AT A GLANCE
AREA ( Sq. Kms) :- 2036
POPULATION TOTAL :- 2718421
(CENSUS 2001) MALES :- 1415603
FEMALES :- 1302818
RURAL POPULATION TOTAL :- 2531766
MALES :- 1316796
FEMALES :- 1214490
URBAN POPULATION TOTAL :- 186655
MALES :- 98807
FEMALES :- 87848
POPULATION OF SCHEDULED CASTES :- 562123
POPULATION OF SCHEDULED TRIBES :- 3068
DENSITY OF POPULATION :- 1335
SEX RATIO :- 920
COMPARATIVE POPULATION DATA( 2001 Census)
Literacy % Total
LITERACY RATE TOTAL :- 50.49%
MALES :- 63.23%
FEMALES :- 36.58%
VILLAGES TOTAL :- 1569
INHABITED :- 1414
PANCHAYATS :- 291
SUB-DIVISION :- 03
BLOCKS :- 16
REVENUE CIRCLES :- 15
HALKAS :- 114
POLICE STATIONS :- 22
POLICE OUTPOSTS :- 06
TOWNS :- 03
NAGAR PARISHAD(HAJIPUR) :- 01
NAGAR PANCHAYAT( LALGANJ, MAHNAR). :- 02
M.P CONSTITUENCY :- 1 ( 1 Part)
M.L.A. CONSTITUENCY :- 8 (Part)
PRIMARY SCHOOLS :- 954
MIDDLE SCHOOLS :-` 389
D.P.E.P SCHOOLS :- 246
CHARWAHA VIDYALAYA :- 06
JAWAHAR NAVODAY VIDYALAYA :- 01
CHILD LABOUR SCHOOLS :- 210
SARVA SIKSHA ABHIYAN VIDYALAYA :- 105
HIGH SCHOOLS :- 81
NO. OF TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOLS :- 700
NO. OF TEACHERS IN PRIMARY /
MIIDDLE SCHOOLS. :- 1806/1760
TEACHERS' TRAINING COLLEGE :- 02
DISTRICT HOSPITAL :- 01
REFERRAL HOSPITAL :- 02
PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE :- 11
ADDITIONAL PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE :- 33
HEALTH SUB CENTRE :- 339
GRAMIN AUSADHALAY :- 09
BLOOD BANK :- 01
AIDS CONTROL SOCIETY :- 01
TRAINED NURSES :- 401
TRAINED DOCTORS :- 120
LENGTH OF RAIL ROUTE :- 71 KM.
NO OF POST OFFICE :- 236
NO OF TELEGRAPH OFFICE :- 19
NO.OF HAND TUBEWELLS IN RURAL AREAS :- 20526
URBAN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
PER DAY WATER SUPPLY CAPACITY- HAJIPUR :- 10.35 (M.L.D)
LALGANJ :- 0.90 (M.L.D)
MAHNAR :- 0.80 (M. L.D)
No. OF HAND TUBEWELLS IN URBAN AREAS HAJIPUR :- 294
LALGANJ :- 79
MAHNAR :- 119
ENERGY & ELECTRICITY
i) LENGTH OF DISTRIBUTION OF NET WORK
(a) 33 KVA LINE :- 75 KM.
(b) 11 KVA LINE :- 1050 KM.
ii) TOWNS ELECTRIFIED
PERCENTAGE OF TOWN :- 75 %
iii) VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED :- 536
PERCENTAGE OF VILLAGE :- 20%
NO OF ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS
a) Lift Irrigation :- 75 Nos.
b) Agriculture services :- 708 Nos.
c) Domestic connection :- 37374 Nos.
d) Small Industrial connections :- 134 Nos.
(Low tension ind. service connections)
LAND USE :-
AREA UNDER CULTIVATION :- 152348.14 ha
FOREST :- Nil
BARREN/UNCULTIVABLE LAND :- 1977 ha
CULTIVABLE WASTE :- 39304.0 ha
PERMANENT GRAZING :- 898.32 acres.
AREA NOT AVAILABLE FOR CULTIVATION :- 59960.28 acres.
MAIN CROPS :- Paddy, Maize, Wheat, Vegetables, tobacco & oil crops.
CROPPING INTENSITY :- 222 %
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION :- 272.46 Thousand MT
YEILD RATES ( Kg/Hectare):-
PADDY :- 2248
WHEAT :- 2124
MAIZE :- 3008 Rabi
GRAM :- 850
LENTIL :- 400
PEA :- 1040
ARHAR :- 1100
MUSTERED :- 850
LINSEED :- 430
FERTILISER CONSUMPTION:- ( Unit MT)
Chemical fertilizer. 5628 Tons.
Nitrogen 6303 5645
Phosphorus 95 1841
Potash 3 143
CONSUMPTION OF SEEDS, PESTICIDES AND INSECTISIDES (In Quintal):-
PADDY :- 355
MAIZE :- 722
WHEAT :- 7250
GRAM :- 02
PEA :- 65
ARHAR :- 02
MUSTERED :- 53
PESTICIDES & INSECTISIDES :- 5.4
AGRICULTURAL GROWTH :- 2%
AGRICULTURAL LABOUR :- 1.96 Lakhs Persons.
(I) PADDY- WHEAT
(II) PADDY WHEAT- MAIZE
(III) PADDY- MAIZE
(IV) PADDY- WHEAT- MUNG
(V) TOBACCO- MAIZE
(VI) PADDY- POTATO - ONION
(VII) PADDY- GRAM/MASUR/TISI
DETAIL OF IRRIGATION FACILITIES IN THE DISTRICT
COMMAND AREA OF KHARIF
a) PADDY :- 62260 Hect.
MAIZE :- 32316 Hect.
b) PULSES :- Hect.
c) OIL SEEDS :- 3971 Hect.
TOTAL :- Hect.
COMMAND AREA OF RABI :- 50493 Hect.
AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL :- 1121 mm.
IRRIGATION SOURCES, POTENTIAL & ACHIEVEMENT (IN HECT)
LAST YEAR ACHIEVEMENT
CANNALS & DAMS
MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT
AHAR, TANK, POND, WELL
SIZE OF HOLDINGS
No. Area in Hect.
(a) Less than 1 Hect. :- 439643 84401
(b) Between 1 and 2 hect. :- 24214 32252
(c) Above 2 hect. :- 11263 36532
No of Vet nary Hospital :- 22
No of Vet nary Sub Center :- 44
(a) Plough Animals :- 127542
(b) Diary Animal :- 158631
(i) Cattle :- 67216
(ii) Buffalos :- 91415
Goats & Others :- 171200
(d) Poultry :- 63284
NUMBER OF BANK BRANCHES
1. STATE BANK OF INDIA :- 10
2. UCO BANK :- 02
3. PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK :- 01
4. BANK OF BARODA :- 02
5. BANK OF INDIA :- 04
6. ALLAHABAD BANK :- 04
7. CANARA BANK :- 06
8. UNION BANK OF INDIA :- 01
9. LAND DEVELOPMENT BANK :- 04
10. D.C.C.B :- 06
11. CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA :- 21
12. VAISHALI REGIONAL RURAL BANK :- 54
LEAD DISTRICT BANK CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA.
CLASSIFICATION OF WORKERS
(a) Cultivators :- 313576
(b) Agriculture laborers :- 242159
(c) Household & Cottage industries :- 175221
(d) Others :- 90279